Amanita muscaria var. flavivolvata
That’s our continent’s mannequin of the standard Eurasian “toadstool,” fliegenpilz shop, which could be basically essentially the most depicted and acknowledged mushroom on earth–a actuality in proof even by my spelling checker’s lack of objection to the species determine; this almost in no way happens with fungi. To me, Amanita muscaria seems to be like like these cut-out backyard decorations that features an outdated farm woman in a polka-dotted robe bending over to tend flowers. Regardless of it seems to be like want to you, you’ll probably agree that it’s enticing. Our North American choice (or “subspecies,” do you have to favor) is distinguished by the reality that its frequent veil and warts are yellow at first, though they quickly fade to white when uncovered to daylight–and by microscopic choices.
The defining choices of the Amanita muscaria species group are:
The presence of warts on the cap;
The presence of a hoop on the upper stem;
Concentric zones of shagginess on the excessive of the swollen stem base.
The color of the cap throughout the muscaria group ranges from vivid purple (Amanita muscaria var. flavivolvata, described and illustrated proper right here), to vivid yellow (see Amanita muscaria var. guessowii), to white (Amanita muscaria var. alba). Consider Amanita muscaria with Amanita pantherina, which is brown and usually incorporates a collar-like rim on the excessive of its bulb, comparatively than concentric zones–and with Amanita parcivolvata, which lacks a hoop and has scattered flakes on its stem base, comparatively than concentric zones.
The taxonomy of the Amanita muscaria species group will very seemingly change throughout the near future. A 2006 analysis by Geml and collaborators found DNA help for the idea the color of the cap and warts in Amanita muscaria simply isn’t basically indicative of phylogenetic variations. The analysis used molecular relationship methods to hypothesize that “[t]he ancestral inhabitants of A. muscaria seemingly developed throughout the Siberian-Beringian space and underwent fragmentation . . . The data counsel that these populations later developed into species, expanded [sic] their fluctuate in North America and Eurasia” (225). As for the usual morphological choices separating “varieties,” the researchers well-known that among the many many species determined by DNA, “[a]ll . . . share on the very least two morphological varieties with completely different species, suggesting ancestral polymorphism in pileus and wart coloration pre-dating their speciations.”
Ecology: Mycorrhizal with conifers and hardwoods (primarily oaks); summer time season and fall (and over winter in coastal California); fairly broadly distributed in North America, nonetheless commonest throughout the Pacific Northwest and Rocky Mountains (occasional–presumably launched–in northeastern North America, apparently absent throughout the Midwest, unusual throughout the southeastern United States, widespread in Mexico).
Cap: 5-25 cm; virtually oval or spherical at first, becoming convex, then broadly convex to flat in age; bald; adorned with fairly a couple of small, cottony warts which could be initially yellow nonetheless in a short while fade to white; deep to vivid purple, nonetheless usually fading with age to pale orange or pale yellow; the margin usually significantly lined.
Gills: Narrowly hooked as much as the stem, or free from it; white; shut or crowded; short-gills frequent.
Stem: 5-18 cm prolonged; 1-Three cm thick; roughly equal, or tapering to apex; with a swollen base; bald or shaggy; white; with a extreme, skirtlike ring; with concentric bands of frequent veil supplies on the excessive of the bulb and/or on the lower stem.